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AVON02d.JPG Avondale Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
When looking through group-technology eyes, this outfit unit assembled by Avondale workers for a commercial vessel is identical to that shown in photos AVON02b and 02c for a Navy vessel. A traditionalist is likely to say, "Wait a minute, the Navy unit has copper-nickel pipe pieces and this one doesn't!" The response to that is, "During pipe-piece family manufacturing the copper-nickel pipe pieces would impose different manufacturing problems, would be classified differently, and would be assigned to different work flows inside the pipe shop. But unit-assembly workers can readily assemble both outfit units with their same skills and tools." The classification of work by problems inherent in the work, instead of by product design, is called group technology. More naval-ship assembly problems are the same as commercial-ship assembly problems than traditionalists realize.


AVON02e.JPG Avondale Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
Since IHI's shipbuilding approach is not facilities intensive, when it was adopted by Avondale the only significant investment in facilities was for a new shop dedicated for the assembly of outfit units. The bridge-crane rails extend outside in order to facilitate transfer of a completed unit to a yard whirly crane.


AVON02f.JPG Avondale Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
Since IHI's shipbuilding approach is not facilities intensive, when it was adopted by Avondale the only significant investment in facilities was for a new shop dedicated for the assembly of outfit units. The bridge-crane rails extend outside in order to facilitate transfer of a completed unit to a yard whirly crane. Interior view.


AVON02g.JPG Avondale Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
Since IHI's shipbuilding approach is not facilities intensive, when it was adopted by Avondale the only significant investment in facilities was for a new shop dedicated for the assembly of outfit units. The bridge-crane rails extend outside in order to facilitate transfer of a completed unit to a yard whirly crane. Interior view showing outfit units.


AVON02h.JPG Avondale Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
When archaic system-by-system work on board is discontinued in favor of zone-oriented work in a spacious, well-ventilated and lighted outfit shop, workers and the progress of their work are readily visible. Safety, quality and productivity improve because people work smarter, not harder.


AVON02i.JPG Avondale Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
The shift to outfitting on unit and on block in an ideal shop ashore, avoids the need for much inherently messy work on board, such as insulating pipes and tanks. Safety, quality and productivity improve because people work smarter, not harder.


AVON02j.JPG Avondale Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
This photo of outfitting on a block for an Exxon product carrier illustrates the significance of the word "zone" as defined by IHI for effective integrated hull construction, outfitting and painting. A zone is not a neat geographical subdivision of a ship design; it can be, but more often it is not. This disturbs traditionalist design managers the most, because they don't want to be weaned away from system-arrangement and detail drawings (their binkies). They feel that grouping information to conform with the way a ship is to be built is not their business. As a direct consequence rework is prevalent. To zone oriented shipbuilders, zone together with stage is synonymous with opportunity. In this photo, the zone was defined to be only contiguous with the deck above, the deck below, two specific frames and the side shell. The zone is not contiguous with the longitudinal bulkhead that appears inboard (in the foreground of the right side of the photo). Before detail design started, an Avondale production planner decided that the zone should extend a few more feet further inboard in order to include all of the fittings that appear just inboard of the longitudinal bulkhead. "Stage" denotes when work of one type shall take place in the zone relative to work of other types, e.g., applying primer, welding and bolting fittings, electric-cable pulling, and applying finish undercoat are examples of different stages. Following turnover, a different zone would apply to the top of the block and the same sequence of stages may be applicable. In order to complete the equation, the word area (problem area) is used for designating the type of work to be performed. Thus, easily coded zone/area/stage designations are a way of telling detail-design managers how to modularize design information and the sequence for producing such information groups. Where such is practiced, removal of portions of an installed system in order to provide access for installation of components for another system, is nil. In one North American shipyard the transformation to zone orientation was successful because the traditionalist design manager was fired at the outset. In another North American Shipyard the traditionalist design manager insisted on doing it his way. The top manager did nothing about it despite having expressed zone orientation as a goal. An extraordinary amount of work and rework had to be performed on board with adverse impact on safety, quality, productivity and schedule adherence.


AVON02k.JPG Avondale Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
Avondale's experience in outfitting and painting Exxon product-carrier blocks, was immediately applied for producing outfitted and painted blocks for Navy ships. A typical T-AO block ready for hull erection, is shown.


AVON03a.JPG Avondale Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
Consistent with adopting the IHI-developed hull-block construction method and zone outfitting and painting methods as introduced by the NSRP, Avondale adopted the "pyramid" hull-erection system. Outfitted and painted blocks, as shown for a Navy T-AO, are first landed at about the position of the forward machinery-space bulkhead. Thence, blocks are landed forward and aft and on top just as the Egyptians built pyramids with one significant difference. Since the after blocks are relatively complicated as compared to the forward blocks, not as many of them can be erected in the same time as for the greater quantity required forward. Thus, the pyramid's center is offset, i.e., the pyramid's cross section is an oblique triangle having a short side (aft) and a long side (forward). Also because they are more complicated, producing the after blocks requires more time. Their assembly is started sooner and more of them are accumulated and stowed near a building dock before keel laying. As a rule of thumb, about 65% of all required outfitted and painted blocks are so accumulated as preparation for a keel-laying date just as the U.S. military marshaled loaded ships as preparation for the invasion of Normandy during World War II. In this respect, a keel-laying date has the same significance as D-Day. In order to assess the remarkable improvement in productivity, see photo HE07d which shows how Avondale erected ships up until the NSRP introduced IHI shipbuilding methods in 1979.


AVON03b.JPG Avondale Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
Close up of pyramid erection of a Navy T-AO as seen from forward and later in time as compared to photo AVON03a. Elevators, as used during building construction, are positioned on both sides to lift erection fitters and welders to the main-deck level.


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