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APP01.JPG Appledore Shipbuilders Application of a Product Work Breakdown Structure (PWBS)

Large Photograph
In December 1981, George Snaith, the Director of Productivity for the Small Ship Sector, reported favorably on a few National Shipbuilding Research Program (NSRP) publications to the Chairman of British Shipbuilders, the nationalized industry then consisting of 17 shipyards. The publications included "Outfit Planning" - December 1979 (NSRP 0096) and "Product Work Breakdown Structure" - November 1980 (NSRP 0096). George Snaith advised, that his copies result from "...the liaison I have built up with senior officials of the U.S. Maritime Administration.... These reports are quite unique. They represent a corpus of structured know-how describing the best of the state-of-the practiced art of shipbuilding (by IHI) which is without equal. It is quite impossible for me to exaggerate their importance and potential value...." As a consequence, L.D. Chirillo was retained to conduct pertinent lectures for line management in the Small-Ships Sector in May 1982. A remarkable response was managed by the people in the small yard known as Appledore Shipbuilders, on the south shore of the Bristol Channel in Devon. In may 1982, Appledore Shipbuilders was located in a new yard. Prior management had convinced the Government that investment in a new yard, specifically including an enclosed building dock, would cause productivity to increase significantly. The new yard was built near the old one as a turn-key operation. On a given day, the management and work force, as an entity, reported to the new yard. The productivity improvement predicted was not realized because the archaic system-by-system shipbuilding approach remained unchanged. The lectures which included photos of IHI's integrated hull construction, outfitting and painting, made that clear. The report "Describing Key Changes in Production in the Small Ship Sector," by George Snaith, updated in March 1983, describes the progress achieved by Appledore Shipbuilders toward zone-orientation in just eight months. This photo and photo APP02 show the traditional piece-by-piece pipe fitting on a machinery-space tank top, which was typical in the new yard in May 1982. The pipe runs are complex, expensive mitered bends are employed, pipe runs do not share common supports, only nominal painting has been performed in process, and there is very poor access for shipbuilding and ship-repair workers.


APP02.JPG Appledore Shipbuilders Application of a Product Work Breakdown Structure (PWBS)

Large Photograph
This photo and photo APP01 show the traditional piece-by-piece pipe fitting on a machinery-space tank top, which was typical in the new yard in May 1982. The pipe runs are complex, expensive mitered bends are employed, pipe runs do not share common supports, only nominal painting has been performed in process, and there is very poor access for shipbuilding and ship-repair workers.


APP03.JPG Appledore Shipbuilders Application of a Product Work Breakdown Structure (PWBS)

Large Photograph
In May 1982, a single pipe piece with six welded joints excluding the flange welds was common. The cost to fabricate each such pipe piece was extraordinary. The Appledore managers were told, that in IHI, designers have to assign a code to each pipe piece that designates its problem category. Their managers use computer scans to detect expensive-to-make pipe pieces. Afterwards, they take corrective action accordingly.


APP04.JPG Appledore Shipbuilders Application of a Product Work Breakdown Structure (PWBS)

Large Photograph
This photo shows a typical unsafe on-board working condition in the new yard in May 1982.


APP05.JPG Appledore Shipbuilders Application of a Product Work Breakdown Structure (PWBS)

Large Photograph
This is a general view of the enclosed building dock after the introduction of zone-oriented integrated hull construction, outfitting and painting. A 3,500-ton dredger is shown three and one-half weeks after keel laying. That is a much shorter time for equivalent progress by the former traditional approach. This view does not show the impressive amount of fittings already in place, the ready access to and preparation for completing the machinery space, nor the well-organized construction of the outfitted deckhouse.


APP06.JPG Appledore Shipbuilders Application of a Product Work Breakdown Structure (PWBS)

Large Photograph
An orthogonal pipe unit is shown which is one of seven having pipes organized in parallel and sharing common supports, and which is painted except for the finish coat. Even the smallest diameter pipe is included; virtually no pipe is field run, i.e., routed by a pipefitter wherever space is available. Assembly and painting were performed in a shop.


APP07.JPG Appledore Shipbuilders Application of a Product Work Breakdown Structure (PWBS)

Large Photograph
This photo shows the outfitting and painting performed on the machinery space overhead, while it is upside down, on an otherwise unused area of the building-dock floor. No scaffolding is needed and all fittings that one worker cannot lift safely, were positioned by a crane. The parallel pipe runs are assembled from seven of the units shown in photo APP06. The large diameter pipes are part of the main-engine exhaust system. Lighting fixtures and the lighting circuits have also been fitted so that following erection of the block, there is no need for temporary lighting systems as had been used in the past.


APP08.JPG Appledore Shipbuilders Application of a Product Work Breakdown Structure (PWBS)

Large Photograph
This photo shows an assembled and painted outfit unit. The framework, made from square-steel tubing, is designed to be independent of the hull structure. This simplifies both design and production planning. Pipe bends have been limited to 90- and 45-degrees. Adjustable feet facilitate alignment when the unit is landed on block or on board. Pipe ends have temporary covers to avoid contamination, electric fittings and cables are fitted, and floor-tread plates are in place so that a safe walkway exists immediately upon landing the unit.


APP09.JPG Appledore Shipbuilders Application of a Product Work Breakdown Structure (PWBS)

Large Photograph
This photo shows an assembled and painted outfit unit. The framework, made from square-steel tubing, is designed to be independent of the hull structure. This simplifies both design and production planning. Pipe bends have been limited to 90- and 45-degrees. Adjustable feet facilitate alignment when the unit is landed on block or on board. Pipe ends have temporary covers to avoid contamination, electric fittings and cables are fitted, and floor-tread plates are in place so that a safe walkway exists immediately upon landing the unit.


APP10.JPG Appledore Shipbuilders Application of a Product Work Breakdown Structure (PWBS)

Large Photograph
This photo shows an assembled and painted outfit unit. The framework, made from square-steel tubing, is designed to be independent of the hull structure. This simplifies both design and production planning. Pipe bends have been limited to 90- and 45-degrees. Adjustable feet facilitate alignment when the unit is landed on block or on board. Pipe ends have temporary covers to avoid contamination, electric fittings and cables are fitted, and floor-tread plates are in place so that a safe walkway exists immediately upon landing the unit.


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