NSnet
     Shipbuilding Pictures Database

Search Results: 42 pictures found.

After viewing the large photos, press the Back button on your browser to return to this list.


NSY01a.JPG Naval Shipyard Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
Traditionally in U.S. naval shipyards, for each vessel to be overhauled and/or modernized, designers respond to a "ship alteration and repair package" (SARP) and an "ordnance work package" (OWP) with traditional system arrangement and detail drawings. Their output reflects insufficient thought of how, or in what sequence, work is to be performed. Afterwards, planners and estimators study each system drawing, estimate work-hours required and write material requisitions. Similarly, scheduling is performed afterwards and is relatively inaccurate because how on-board system-by-system workers interfere with each other is difficult to predict. Production control is also difficult because job orders issued to shops are relatively large and there is no analytical method for determining percentages of completion. Supervisors responsible for implementing work are also responsible for estimating and reporting their own work progress. In such environments cost overruns become normal. In fact in traditionally operated naval shipyards, they are institutionalized; the term Performance Factor is used to designate "the ratio of expenditures versus allowances." In the mid 1980s a few naval shipyards achieved very impressive results with a different approach. Figure NSY01b refers.


NSY01b.JPG Naval Shipyard Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
Figure NSY01a refers. Because of participation in the Maritime Administration created and administered National Shipbuilding Research Program, the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, in the mid 1980s, was introduced to planning before design activity starts. This enables design information to be grouped to match a sequence of contemplated work stages in each of a number of specific zones. As shown in this figure, the first response to a ship alteration and repair package (SARP) and an ordnance work package (OWP) for a pending vessel availability, is a production engineered strategy which is needed to coordinate the simultaneous progress of design, man-hour budgeting, scheduling, and material marshaling. This approach facilitates associating material lists with each zone/stage work package and relating material to the man-hours required to process material. The link of material to man-hours is a sound basis for analytically determining progress. Effective production control is achieved through control of material.


NSY02a.JPG Naval Shipyard Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
Philadelphia Naval Shipyards implementation of zone technology for approximately half of the USS KITTY HAWK (CV-63) Ship Life Extension Program (SLEP), started in the fall of 1986. The effort was larger than all other repair and modernization zonal approaches, combined, in the seven other U.S. naval shipyards which existed at that time. Zones were defined in accordance with "group technology," i.e., each zone contained work of a nature that was inherently different from work in another zone. Thus the zones employed were not traditional neat subdivisions of the vessel. With advice provided by consultants from IHI of Japan, the zones for different problem categories were:
    0 - Services, dock work and miscellaneous.
    1 - All tanks (cleaning, painting, piping, structural, testing), tank tops and hull structure.
    2 - All work in the main machinery spaces and associated shaft alleys (except tank-top repairs).
    3 - Auxiliary machinery spaces and all associated work (except tank-top repairs).
    4 - All magazine work (except tank-top repairs).
    5 - All pump-room work, emergency generation spaces, air-conditioning spaces and rudder work.
    6 - Spaces from third deck to main deck (primarily, but not limited to, accommodation spaces).
    7 - Hangar bay.
    8 - Spaces from main deck to flight deck (primarily electrical/electronic spaces) plus island.
    9 - Flight deck.


NSY02b.JPG Naval Shipyard Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
Following application of the zonal approach USS KITTY HAWK (CV-63) Ship Life Extension Program (SLEP), Philadelphia Naval Shipyard applied the same approach for additional projects including for the entire one-billion dollar SLEP for USS CONSTELLATION (CV-64). With advice provided by consultants from IHI of Japan, the zones that addressed the different types of work were:

    1 - Tanks and voids (4th deck and below), underwater hull, rudders, anchors and anchor chains.
    2 - Four main-machinery rooms, compartments on 4th deck just above these main-machinery rooms, shaft alleys, uptakes, propellers and shafts.
    3 - Two auxiliary-machinery rooms, compartments on 4th deck just above these auxiliary-machinery rooms.
    4 - Magazines and weapons elevators.
    5 - Seven pump rooms, three emergency-generator rooms, two steering-gear rooms, air-conditioning machinery rooms, refrigerating chambers and various other storerooms below the 3rd deck (compartments below the 3rd deck are not covered in zones 1 through 4).
    6 - Habitability on 2nd and 3rd decks.
    7 - Hangar bay and offices and storerooms related to the hangar bay, aircraft elevators and related machinery rooms.
    8 - Habitability, offices and electronic rooms from the main deck to the flight deck, excluding compartments in zones 2, 4 and 7.
    9 - Flight deck, catapults and related machinery rooms, and jet-blast deflectors and related machinery rooms.
    0 - Island and other structure above the flight deck.

More information about the successful employment of the zonal approach by Philadelphia Naval Shipyard is contained in the following issues of the SNAME Journal of Ship Production:

L.D. Burrill, B.S. Munro, M.S. O'Hare and K. Baba, Strategizing and Executing the Implementation and Utilization of Zone Technology at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, JSP August 1990, pp. 164-174.

M.D. Petersen-Overton, Zone Technology Implementation at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard - Phase III, JSP February 1992, pp. 36-47.



NSY03a.JPG Naval Shipyard Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
In order to effectively convey information to workers, Philadelphia Naval Shipyard (PNSY) developed booklet-type work instructions. Each addresses a specific zone that encompasses a work site on board, and each addresses one or more work stages, i.e., in IHI terminology, each addresses one or more pallets. Standard size paper was employed (8-1/2"x11" with 8-1/2"x14" and larger for foldouts.) so that the booklets were easily reproduced on office photo-copy machines. As compared to the traditional approach, each booklet represented a greater investment in planning with design performing as an aspect of planning. Since each booklet contained modularized information, some pages from one booklet were used in others with little or no modification. No large, traditionally complicated, blueprints were needed by workers. The details needed for work in a particular on-board zone/stage were extracted by a designer and incorporated in one section of the booklet. Another section contained the details needed for associated shop work. This prevents problems as described by J.F. Yurso in "A Lesson Learned on the Waterfront," Naval Engineers Journal, January 1987, p. 90. A critically needed simple part for a submarine was incorrectly machined twice because the design people only advised, "make it like the plan" while referring to a ten-foot long blueprint which "contained numerous diagrams, alternate views, tables and a mass of figures, sketches, applicability columns, etc." An obscure note all but buried the information that would have avoided the foul up. In contrast, the PNSY-developed booklets efficiently conveyed to workers only the knowledge required to do a specific job. The cover page of each booklet included, in plan and profile views, the location of the work zone. One work-instruction page showed the planned routing of cables and hoses for temporary services. This permitted the planned reuse of such services in nearby zones and greatly enhanced safety because on-board temporary services were minimized and organized. The final section, labeled "Quality Improvement Sheet" was provided for workers to feed back their ideas for how to better perform future work of the same problem category.


NSY03b.JPG Naval Shipyard Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
Before participation in the Maritime Administration created and administered National Shipbuilding Research Program (NSRP 0058), Philadelphia Naval Shipyard (PSNS) exchanged aircraft-carrier arresting-gear engines with engines that had been restored by a facility in Lakehurst, N.J. The approximately 50-foot long rebuilt engines were delivered to the shipyard without foundation bolt holes because the bolt-hole positions differed for each engine position. Per traditional practice the bolt holes in the tensile-steel deck were plug welded. The welding caused cracks that had to be gouged and re-welded, sometimes more than once. Each rebuilt engine was set in place on board where holes were drilled through the foundation and deck simultaneously in order to insure their alignment. The entire process consumed extraordinary time and manpower. When PNSY shifted to a product work breakdown, the entire process for replacing arresting-gear engines was rationalized. By employing photogrammetric surveys for short range (non-terrestrial) applications, as described by the National Shipbuilding Research Program, the bolt-hole positions were accurately determined before removal of an engine to be replaced. Each survey report, by JFK Photogrammetric Consultant Inc. of Indialantic, Florida, was the basis for a foundation bolt-hole location plan which the Lakehurst facility used to accurately spot and drill a bolt-hole arrangement in each replacement-engine's foundation to match the holes for a particular site on board. In the deck, the original bolt holes were reused. Plug welding and gouging of weld-caused cracks were no longer required. Thereafter, the foundations were simply landed on board and immediately bolted in place.


NSY04.JPG Naval Shipyard Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
Because of participation in the Maritime Administration's National Shipbuilding Research Program, the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS), in 1983, invested in learning more about planning ship alterations before design activity starts so that design information could be grouped to match a sequence of work stages in a specific zone. This zonal thinking, developed by IHI of Japan, was a major departure from traditional practice wherein, after design completes system arrangement and detail drawings, work is planned, scheduled and executed on a system-by-system basis. Thus an ad-hoc product team was created for each major ship alteration that was to be implemented with the more effective approach. The following legend applies: "vent" - heating, ventilation and air conditioning; "P & M" - piping & machinery; "E & E" - electrical & electronics; "P & E" - planning and estimating; and "ILS" - integrated logistic support. Only the most complicated large-scale projects required that all product-team billets be filled.


NSY05a.JPG Naval Shipyard Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
During 1984, the overhaul of USS RANGER (CV-61) provided an opportunity for the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS) to substitute zone-outfitting concepts for traditional system-by-system operations. The task selected, installation of a close-in weapons system (CIWS) involved a new deckhouse and thus offered opportunity to perform outfitting on unit and on block. This plan view shows where the deckhouse (blue) is to be joined to the aircraft carrier's island structure. The project consisted of fabricating, outfitting and attaching a 24- by 26- by 8-foot deckhouse outboard of the existing island in order to provide a new defensive-weapon suite. The effort required coordination of the design and production efforts for fourteen systems.


NSY05b.JPG Naval Shipyard Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
Booklets, called "Unit Work Guides," provided information organized for a zone/stage planned sequence that effected orderly different-craft access to the same zone. Since the work that was traditionally performed on board, was performed in a shop, safety and productivity were greatly enhanced.


NSY05c.JPG Naval Shipyard Applications of a PWBS

Large Photograph
The deckhouse was completely erected, outfitted and painted in the steel shop.


  Next Photos >>  

Start New Search